any insincere attempt to meet with regulations or policy requirements, marked by superficial or limited compliance, without any commitment. There is normally enough done to avoid any sanctions, but not enough to have much effect. It is most commonly used in relation to equal opportunities in employment. In education, it can relate to a range of other contexts, such as tokenism relating to consultation, learner-centredness, school councils, or the purchase and use of textbooks to meet policies on racial and gender equality.