a management system of accountability, where judgements and evaluations are made of the performance of an individual or group and their value or worth calculated in terms of the ratings awarded. A complex system of performance indicators, appraisal, targets, and monitoring is often involved. In education, it is often criticised as overplaying aspects of business management as opposed to professional issues and concerns. It is also questionable if some of the complex, but central, aspects of education can be readily translated into easily assessed indicators, with the result that it is said that the system ends up valuing what it can measure rather than measuring what it values.