the belief that, as all organisations are basically similar, their performance can be optimised by the application of generic management skills and theory. Thus, professional experience and skills in education would not be seen as necessary for a manager in an educational context. The term is often used pejoratively of any approach which is management-dominated, often without due regard to educational theory and values, or of a viewpoint which stresses the important of internal management processes and structures in an educational institution at the expense of awareness of wider societal pressures and contextual influences.