A term from French politics referring to the separation of church and state. In educational terms, it means the attempt to keep religion, or religious practice, out of the school system. In recent times it has provoked controversy as it has been invoked in attempts to prevent the wearing of religious symbols in schools. This commitment to a secular education system is also found in Turkey and some other countries.
the exercise of authority in directing or managing the work of others. It is often distinguished from management by being more concerned with direction and influence than with stability and efficiency. It has lately become a key focus because of its deemed importance in effecting positive change in schools. Clearly, there are other relevant issues to consider: professional knowledge and understanding, values, and morality. The ability to make change happen will only improve schools if that change has merit, regardless of the leadership skills employed.
a vast literature surrounds this topic, and much debate, linked to rival theories which address it. The least controversial that can be said of the term is that it refers to some sort of cognitive, behavioural, or affective change or development in the individual, associated with interaction with external forces.
the collection and analysis of a range of data about learners and their contexts with the purpose of adapting and improving the learning environment in response. It is more common in the USA. It has been criticised for risking a mechanistic approach to student experience and an unduly quantitative perspective on learning.
the integration of various student services within an academic library. It typically involves the availability of traditional research and reference facilities but combined with access to modern technology of various forms. In some cases, provision is also made for students to socialise and so noise toleration is much more liberal than in the past.