in educational contexts, the process or fact of increasing the participation of all learners within the system as a whole, or within the curriculum, culture, and community of particular establishments. Most commonly, it involves developing or offering a single form of educational provision for all learners - regardless of ability. Thus, learners who would previously have been sent to separate institutions for a variety of reasons are included within one overall set-up. There may continue to be specialist institutional provision for those with particularly pronounced needs but the assumption is that all learners will be provided for within the one system. This brings with it certain challenges relating to resources, staff expertise, class sizes, and equality - trying to balance the needs of the individual with the common good. More broadly, inclusion can relate to similar issues of participation and equity relating to race, culture, language, ethnicity, social class, wealth, gender, age, disability, sexual orientation.