Glossary of terms used on this site

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Term Definition
cross reference

a reference from one text or part of a text to another or to a file catalogue etc. containing relating information.


descriptive of any arrangement group or activity which involves more than one curriculum subject or area. It is often viewed in a positive light as it addresses the danger of compartmentalisation caused by a rigid curriculum structure especially in secondary schools (see integrated education).

cultural capital

a term from the work of Pierre Bourdieu (1930-2002). In embodied form it is the dispositions knowledge skills attitudes a person has which give them social advantage. For example children from a middle class background tend to have the cultural capital that makes the educational system a more comfortable and familiar environment for them to succeed in more easily. In objectified form it refers to such things as books and in institutionalised form it is most readily identified in the form of academic qualifications. Elsewhere Bourdieu refers to it as 'informational capital'.


in educational contexts this term usually refers to the whole way of life - behaviours and beliefs - of a particular group perhaps distinguished by race class age nationality ethnicity orientation etc. or a combination of these. Examples might be Gaelic culture youth culture working class culture or black English teenage urban culture.


loosely a course of study in a school or college. More properly it is defined as the overall rationale for or essential principles and features of an educational programme. An influential theorist Ralph W. Tyler (1902-1994) outlined four key elements in curriculum: aims objectives or purposes content methods or procedures assessment. Curriculum is often used wrongly as synonymous with syllabus  which is in fact the term for curriculum content ( see also related terms such as formal curriculum hidden curriculum total curriculum).


in education this most often refers to the process by which teaching materials and programmes are adapted to suit the needs of a particular learner or group of learners.

cut-off point

in an assessment marking scheme the score which is the minimum accepted as a pass or for a specific grade.

cyber pedagogy

the science or art of teaching within an online environment. It focuses on the rationale and methods of teaching most suited to the specific technology in use, as opposed to what may be more appropriate for traditional face-to-face classroom contexts.


a negative outlook or disposition distrusting the motives or integrity of others.

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