a term, borrowed from business management and personal development theory and itself imported from sport, which has gained educational currency in recent years. It refers to the training of an individual or group, in a supportive but expert manner, to improve performance or ability. Its attraction is probably because it can fit both constructivist and behaviourist approaches to learning: on the one hand, it stresses the individual's active role in responding to the coach's input; on the other hand it is susceptible to a process of conditioned responses where the coach systematically promotes improvement through a series of sequenced actions each supported by relevant reinforcement.