the rights, responsibilities, functions, privileges and duties of being a member of society. Concern in recent years at a perceived decline in its proper exercise has led to political expectations of schools to 'teach' citizenship and promote related characteristics and behaviours in their pupils. It is subject to a number of contested debates such as the extent to which a child is a citizen or merely a citizen 'in the making', about the balance between citizenship rights and citizenship responsibilities, and about teaching citizenship as a subject discipline or as a practice.