parental choice has been emphasised by politicians in recent decades. It is particularly stressed in the area of school choice: selecting to send offspring to private school, faith school, or to make placing requests to choose state school. It is not uncontroversial as it is thought to favour articulate, informed middle-class parents unduly, and to skew badly school composition in certain areas. The place of choice in affecting learner engagement and motivation has also been recognised to some extent with schools and curricula endeavouring to create options as far as they deem it possible (see agency).