both Jean Piaget (1896-1980) and John Dewey (1859-1952) stress learning as an adaptive process whereby the learner makes adjustments in response to interaction with the environment, physical and social. Learning enables one to proceed successfully as a result of such adaptation. Paulo Freire (1921-1997) disliked the term as he felt it lacked a sufficient sense of agency and he preferred to use the term 'integrative' to show the way in which the learner, when free, not only responds to, but is able to act upon, the environment.