in schooling, this usually refers to regulations governing expected standards of behaviour. In recent times, learners have been involved more in creating such rules - encouraging self-discipline and policy ownership - and rules have tended to be expressed in terms of behaviour expected, deemed to be more effective than those expressed in negative terms : "Do not. . .!"
a grouping of humans with common features thought to be inherited genetically; ancestry; tribal or national origin.
a standard research method involving the creation of two closely matching groups, for comparative purposes, only one of which is then subjected to the intervention which is being studied. It is a common approach in science but meets with problems and criticism when implemented in educational research, not least because of the difficulty of generalising from the unique circumstances of the trial.
a set of reasons or the logical basis for a course of action or a belief.
opposing social progress or reform.
a term with broad application: in philosophy it generally refers to the belief that there is anobjective world about which we can have objective knowledge. More commonly, it is a term used for an approach which accepts the world or situations as they are and judges the merits of ideas, plans, and actions on the extent to which they fit this viewpoint. Positively, this can be seen as a counter to the unfeasible and the idealistic but negatively it can be seen as being too resigned to things as they are and lacking the will to effect change or improvement.
the tendency to relapse, particularly into anti-social, harmful, or discredited behaviours or attitudes.
an important aspect of schooling which involves keeping track of various issues relating to learners such as attendance, achievements, and progress. The rise in public accountability has led to considerable growth in record keeping and many critics compare negatively the increased time taken to manage this with its perceived value.
a process of careful consideration. It is seen as vital for teachers in respect of improving their own practice, and increasingly for learners in respect of improving their learning or study skills. It, therefore, needs to be conducted in informed way to be of real value (see pedagogy; praxis;metacognition).
the action or process of changing a system, institution, or practice with the intention of improving it.
mental preparation, especially by repetition.
the state or property of being connected to one's experience, current interests, or needs. It is a key concept in the educational theory of John Dewey (1859 - 1952) which argues that to be successful, teaching needs to focus on what the learner actually needs and wants, what is deemed relevant. Dewey saw learning as an evolutionary process whereby humans develop better ways of adapting to and improving their environment. So what is to be learned must be seen as having this connection if it is to be engaged with.
pertaining to action designed to address some difficulty or lack of progress in learning. It is most often used in the context of children with specific learning difficulties.
any action or course of action designed to rectify some difficulty or lack of progress in learning.
in education, systematic study and investigation undertaken to extend knowledge. Applied research involves using the results of research to affect practice. Much debate surrounds the nature and value of educational research as the nature of education is not readily amenable to the quantitative techniques of empirical science whereas qualitative research is sometimes viewed as limited, in terms of its generalisability.
the ability to recover readily from, or adjust easily to, adversity, misfortune, or setbacks of any kind; buoyancy. It is viewed as being a key factor in success in education, particularly for those from disadvanted backgrounds. The importance given to it has been criticised, however, on the grounds that it seems to place the onus on the individual to adapt or cope, rather than focusing on action to address the underlying disadvantage itself.
an approach to behaviour management but also to personnel management generally which focuses on repairing relationships rather than on retribution or punishment in cases of misdemeanour or rule-breaking.
the practice of amending or countering previously held or established opinions or attitudes; the modification of socialist or Marxist beliefs, typically away from revolutionary principles.
any consequence a person experiences to their behaviour which tends to increase the likelihood of that behaviour being repeated. Used widely in education, they are not without problems, however. They may increase compliant superficial behaviour whereas the underlying understanding and commitment may be missing; people respond in different ways so some rewards may not work. Other consequences, not intended as rewards, may be seen as such: for example, sanctions may reward because of the attention value (see reinforcement).
the art of effective or persuasive speaking. Sometimes the term is used pejoratively where there is perceived gap between the words used and evident reality. For example political claims about education may be described as mere 'rhetoric' if they are not seen to be a fair representation of the real situation ( see spin).
descriptive of conservative or reactionary political views.
the quality of being extremely thorough and demanding. A term often used with approbation in evaluations of schools and their processes.
the process or procedures involved in assessing, and minimising or eliminating, the dangers - to assets, persons, and property - inherent in any aspect of an organization's operation or proposed operations. It is most commonly referred to in education in relation to school trips, particularly of the outdoor adventure type, where there may be a risk of injury or even death to participants. The increased fear of litigation resulting from such cases has led to some professionals becoming reluctant to become involved in these activities.