the art, 'science', or principles and methods, of teaching. Some see it as having three key aspects: methodology, rationale, and reflection. In some contexts, the term is used more broadly for the science of education, didactics, or upbringing. One problem with understanding it as a 'science' is the implication that there are set formulae for teaching which can be applied in all circumstances. This is misguided, given the social complexities of learning, and so pedagogy as the 'art' of teaching may be less problematic in this regard, at least.