this is a phenomenon, found in a number of different fields, where past or traditional practice continues even when better options have become available or where the circumstances that gave rise to the original course of action no longer exist or have become irrelevant. In education, examples might be to do with curriculum content, teaching approaches, arrangements for professional development, or administrative procedures. It can also be applied to aspects of learners' behaviour. Sometimes called path dependency.
the art, 'science', or principles and methods, of teaching. Some see it as having three key aspects: methodology, rationale, and reflection. In some contexts, the term is used more broadly for the science of education, didactics, or upbringing. One problem with understanding it as a 'science' is the implication that there are set formulae for teaching which can be applied in all circumstances. This is misguided, given the social complexities of learning, and so pedagogy as the 'art' of teaching may be less problematic in this regard, at least.
a temporary, often informal, space or event set up with a focus on learning
a term from the work of Isaiah Berlin (1909-97) which refers to the capacity to exercise choice and agency by virtue of having the power and resources to do so. It would normally involve some kind of external intervention to enable this to happen: for example, becoming literate or numerate increases one's capacity to act as one wishes, as does the acquisition of money or status. Negative liberty, on the other hand, merely means the absence of external restraint but this type of freedom may only be theoretical if one does not have the resources or ability to act as one would desire.
the treatment of relevant persons or groups according to their due. This means that distribution will not be numerically equal but will be governed in relation to persons' deemed rightful needs. In the classroom, this might mean the teacher spending more time with some pupils rather than others, because of some factor deemed important. The basis for this proportional treatment is not fixed and so the principle can be used for quite different approaches: for example, one version might be to channel teacher support towards the more able, as they are deemed more deserving; another version, would be to favour the less able, as they are seen to be more deserving. (see numerical equality)