the political and economic philosophy of Karl Marx (1818-1883) and Friedrich Engels (1820-1895). In brief, the theory holds that social and political structures are determined by economic conditions, that class domination has been the key phenomenon in social history, that class struggle creates historical change, and that capitalism will be superseded ultimately by communism. One aspect of its educational application, for example, would be the view that schools and the curriculum are not neutral but serve dominant class interests.
a technique or procedure for summarising or collating the results of research studies which cover the same or similar topics (see systematic review).
an acronym for 'massive open online course'. This phenomenon began to flourish from around 2008 and involves online academic courses designed for mass participation through open access on the internet. Part of their attraction lies in that most are freely available and that some prestigious institutions have become involved. Few involve any form of assessment and their value remains questionable, although any long-term expansion could pose a challenge to the status and authority of the university system.