educational provision undertaken by the family rather than by state or private schools. As early legislation placed the duty on the parent to provide or secure education for the child, this was permissible. Provision is still subject to inspection. Opinion is divided on the nature of the educational experience offered by home schooling, concerns principally raised in relation to the capacity to provide effective social education and, in cases where religious conviction is a key factor in the parental choice of home schooling, to respect children's growing rights to freedom of expression and belief. In some countries, such as Germany, home schooling is illegal.
in educational management, an arrangement which deals with learners of similar status such as in terms of age/stage: for example, dealing with all of the one year-group rather than involving individuals from different year groups. A vertical pastoral system would mean a teacher dealing with learners from different stages of school, whereas in a horizontal system, the teacher would only deal with those from the one year-group.