one of the fundamental democratic values. It is a highly contested term which refers to a state of correspondence - the state of being equal - in quantity, degree, value, status, or ability. In education, it is most often linked to issues around equality of provision and of outcomes. It is often synonymous with justice or fairness and so to the avoidance, or removal, of discrimination (see numerical equality, proportional equality, equal opportunities)
the study of causation, of why things occur. Etiological issues are important in educational research when trying to pick out key factors in some phenomenon, or in discriminating between causation and mere correlation. For example, a study may struggle to determine if reading for pleasure activity contributes to reading ability, or if it is reading ability that leads to more reading for pleasure. As with many etiological issues in education, the answer may not be clear-cut.