from the work of Chris Argyris (1923-2013), this refers principally to organisational settings where corrective action addresses both the means and the ends. The process involves questioning, and changing, the very goals and purposes of action as well as the means previously employed (see single-loop learning)
in education, any conceptualisation of a problem which describes it in terms of a deficiency or failure on behalf of a person or group as opposed to an institutional or systemic failure. For example, a deficit model would view disabled access as resting in the inability of the target group to enter a building as opposed to the failure of the building or those managing it to provide suitable entry for all. It is most common in discourse about pupil needs, learning, and behaviour.
in educational management, the action of entrusting tasks or responsibilities to others (usually junior colleagues). It is viewed as a more enlightened and efficient form of management but can be controversial when management retains financial reward for tasks and responsibilities which have thus now become the work of others or where key duties are entrusted to less qualified and capable staff.
a school run according to the principles of a particular religious group. Properly it only refers to a branch of the Christian church but has become synonymous with faith schools in general.
a metaphor used primarily in relation to study or learning characterised by thoroughness, intensity, and complexity (see deep learning; surface learning).
a test result which has been subject to some modification, perhaps related to norm-referencing, as opposed to the raw score.
a term referring to a radical movement which flourished in the late 1960s early 1970s, and which argued that compulsory schooling should be abolished, principally because of its role in social control and indoctrination. A key proponent was Ivan Illich (1926-2002) who promoted the alternative of loosely-based community 'learning webs'.
the punishment of being kept at school after hours or during breaks. Critics question its value, not least since it is established on the view that being in school is a punishment and so seems unlikely to encourage future attendance, positive views of school, or to promote the desire to benefit from school.
descriptive of a system or instance where power, duties, responsibilities, are passed to a lower level. At national level this can refer, for example, to parliamentary devolution; ai educational administration, it refers to the way in which power over certain matters such as budgets is passed from one level to another - from local council to school management or from school management to departmental or individual staff level (see delegation).
an action or process aimed at identifying a particular problem or characteristic. For example, it may involve testing for symptoms of a specific learning difficulty or disorder.
a theory developed by Friedrich Engels (1820-95) and Karl Marx (1818-83) that matter (as opposed to mind) is fundamental, as is change (historical, political) which occurs through the social conflict of contradictions and their solutions.
in education, this refers to the oral, social interaction between teacher and learner. It is also a term used in the work of Mikhail Bakhtin (1895-1975) for any approach which allows for different outlooks or viewpoints as opposed to a single, monologic 'truth'. This can be seen as aligned with critical pedagogy and opposed to an instructivist, banking model of education.
a physical or mental condition which limits a person's movements, senses, or activities.
in educational terms this normally means an unfavourable circumstance which limits educational opportunities or reduces the chances of progress.
particular branches of knowledge; subject domains or areas (see forms of knowledge).
a complex term, one sense of which can be described in the words of Michel Foucault (1926-1984) as the group of statements that belong to a single system of formation - for example, political discourse, educational discourse, psychiatric discourse. In a broader sense, however, discourse also means a whole way of understanding and constructing the world, a system of thought, and so is interwoven with issues of social practices and power.
separate, distinct. 'Discreet', however, means careful, prudent, unobtrusive.
in educational usage, this normally refers to a person's inclinations or tendencies, especially towards learning. It is a contested area as a disposition may merely be an observer's opinion or perception, and it is hard to judge if this perceived disposition is itself an effect of the person's educational experience rather than a causal factor.
disturbance to educational activity, especially that caused by behavioural problems.
any programme of study where the learner does not require to be 'on site' to undertake the course. There are various different formats, such as through the medium of email, videoconferencing, online or correspondence courses.
having no finite limits. Divergent questioning means asking 'open' questions without a simple, factual answer in mind, aimed at genuinely eliciting opinion, thoughts. Divergent thinking is similarly free of pre-set restrictions. Divergent assessment involves asking open questions or setting tasks which are open-ended, allowing for original responses (see convergent)
the state of being in two parts or a doctrine, belief which holds this. It can refer to theories and beliefs in numerous areas such as religion, morality, and politics. Typical examples of dualism would be a belief in good and evil, or in the separation of mind and body, or of the material and the spiritual
a neurological deficiency in language use, usually manifested in difficulties with reading and spelling. It is somewhat controversial as some dispute that is can be distinguished satisfactorily from those merely manifesting weak reading and spelling skills which have no neurological basis.
a condition affecting bodily movement, such as awkwardness in co-ordination.