constructivism

a theory which regards learning as an active process where the learner constructs and internalises new concepts, ideas, and knowledge based on their present and past experiences. Learning is not a received object, but a created process. Two main forms of the theory are cognitive constructivism and social constructivism. More generally in the social sciences, it can also refers to a range of approaches which view elements thought to have objective reality as instead being social or cultural 'constructs'.