an approach where learners work on a task together, dependent on and accountable to each other. Each learner contributes to, and benefits from others' involvement in, the activity. It can be seen as aligned most obviously to social constructivist theory. While related to cooperative learning, it is distinguished by the fact there is a common task and a single group result. Cooperative learning can involve separate tasks and individual outcomes although the process may be marked by shared activity and mutual support.